To understand what that is, we need to learn about participles: According to the Grammar Desk Reference, “Participles take two forms: present participles always end in -ing, and past participles usually end in -d or -ed” (2). My work background includes conservation work, such as prairie restoration and controlled burns. The semicolons are used instead of commas to help distinguish the breaks between claim elements, because the claim element descriptions themselves frequently contain commas. You can think of a nonrestrictive clause as simply additional information” (1). 2005. It should read 'The distinguished scientist Mr Stephen, of AKL University, will be addressing the crowd tomorrow.' As always, use commas before and/or after names in direct address. Main Takeaways: Place a comma before which when which precedes a nonrestrictive clause. If it’s added information, add a comma. The Oxford comma reduces ambiguity in lists. Use a pair of commas in the middle of a sentence to set off transition words and phrases as well as … As you can note from the example sentence above, restrictive phrases do not use a comma before them. Today, such a sentence is considered over-punctuated. When it’s used as a preposition (e.g., some flowers for my mom) you probably don’t need a comma before it, unless it’s in a list or some other structure that needs commas. It’s a myth that you put in commas wherever you would pause— don’t rely on that fake rule—but it’s true that you often pause when you hit a comma when you’re reading a sentence aloud. Now let’s see some sentence-ending participial phrases that don’t require a comma. 1. Make sure that the comma is placed before the coordinating conjunction. Examples. Both of those phrases could stand alone as complete sentences. If you missed the pauses before, listen now to this new example: “He ran into the wall, banging his nose in the process.”. Now let’s get to the issue at hand. Notice the difference in the following two sentences. ", I was looking at this as a source for my students and noticed first that "focusing" was spelled wrong, and then that you didn't capitalize all of the important words in the title of Hosseini's book. It’s not extra information; it’s essential information. In some uses of the CRON format there is also a seconds field at the beginning of the pattern. Commas Before and in a Series. Check your text and writing for style, spelling and grammar problems everywhere on the web! Improve your grammar, vocabulary, and writing -- and it's FREE! Grammar Desk Reference, Cincinnati: Writer’s Digest Books, p. 207. Example: You may be required to bring many items, e.g., sleeping bags, pans, and warm clothing. The more complicated truth is that it depends on context: if a sentence is very long, or it seems necessary to insert a comma before because in order to make the meaning of the sentence clear, then that construction is acceptable. When do you put a comma before a participial phrase such as "making me cry"? Comma . That’s the strict version of the rule. Before we reveal which sentence needs a comma and which doesn’t, let’s go back to a term from the beginning of the show: participial phrase. I never know when to use a comma before with and when not. We will give you an update within the day. ... for instance in an enumeration comprising lengthy or complex elements. Newspapers and magazines do not generally use this rule as print space is too valuable to use on what might be considered extraneous punctuation. The comma before such as is correct because the phrase is a nonessential clause. She hated going to the dentist, and cried the whole way there. If a participial phrase comes at the end of a sentence, use a comma—unless the phrase is restrictive (3). There are strict rules that govern when you can (and can't) use commas. There are more usages of a comma, for example, how adding or removing comma before and after a name changes the meaning of the sentence — In this Grammar.com article let us understand how to correctly use commas with names. That means they’re independent clauses, so you need to use a comma before but. You could argue that the comma is used to create a natural break in the flow of a long sentence and to emphasize where the second clause begins, but not because they are independent clauses. You can’t just stick on a phrase somewhere without paying attention to punctuation. eg He surprised her with an engagement ring. We’ve hired all our interns, and we’re ready to start working on the project. Note the comma before WITH. Remember: If it’s extra information, use extra commas. The problem with sentence-ending participial phrases is that writers often add such a phrase as an afterthought, and they often omit a needed comma. A Comma before However It is common grammar mistake to use a comma before however when it is being used to merge two sentences into a compound sentence.For example: I hate potatoes, however, I like chips. On Monday we’ll see the … 1991). You cannot do this with conjunctive adverbs (e.g., however, furthermore, consequently), but you … Examples: … the Ministries of Foreign Affairs, Finance, and Health and Social Affairs ... Commas in pairs. THIS was the example I was hoping to find here but did not. Always place a comma before or when it begins an independent clause, but if it begins a dependent clause, don’t. Copyright © 2021 Macmillan Publishing Group, LLC. In American English usage, many writers and editors feel that a comma should precede and with three or more items in a series.. The first version’s reveal in a Bloomberg article and video prompted a cease-and-desist letter from the California Department of Motor Vehicles, which accused Comma.ai of testing a self-driving car in the state without a license. Commas before “including” in restrictive phrases. What's the difference between this question and the Case 3 example? A widget comprising: A; B; C; and D. where A, B, C, and D are usually long phrases which recite different elements in the claim. Wrong: She hated going to the dentist, … We use commas while combining multiple phrases in one sentence or writing about different items in a list. So, I'm thinking I'm not going to look to this source to provide grammar advice. Comma use is subjective and in most, but not all cases is a style choice. Is a comma necessary in a sentence like: Comma … "Lily made Panna Cotta, an Italian dessert", Yep, looks fine -- just make sure to add a period at the end :-). Rule 16b. First, look at the words before but: I would go for a walk. There is a comma before the conjunction (but), and the nonessential comment (in the end) is set off with a pair of commas. Subsequently, OpenPilot was packaged into a shippable device dubbed the Comma One, which again ran afoul of the authorities because of noncompliance with U.S. Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards. This article was written by Bonnie Trenga, author of The Curious Case of the Misplaced Modifier, who blogs at sentencesleuth.blogspot.com, and read in the podcast by Mignon Fogarty, author of the New York Times bestseller, Grammar Girl’s Quick and Dirty Tips for Better Writing. Would this be correct? Here’s another example: “I saw the waves crashing onto the surfer.” Here, “crashing onto the surfer” tells us something very specific about the waves: what the waves were doing. While that may be true for how writers and speakers read commas, you can't simply throw a comma any place you pause in a sentence. ; Oxford commas are also known as serial or Harvard commas. Again, when it is used as an adverb, you don’t use a comma. Such clauses “are usually surrounded by, or preceded by, commas” (1). There are two schools of thought on how best to lighten the punctuation of such a sentence. Use commas to offset appositives from the rest of the sentence. I’m going to say this again because it’s important: A pause in a sentence does not mean that’s where you use a comma. Web. They serve amazing sushi. I drove the car home as it was snowing. In the particular case of the system crontab file (/etc/crontab), a user field inserts itself before the command. Here’s another example: “Everyone over 50 was fired, causing an uproar.” “Making me cry” and “causing an uproar” are acting as afterthoughts in these sentences, so both require a comma beforehand. “who is a better painter than I” is correct because the “am” is understood. title is supposed to be italicized, too. We truly appreciate your support. Correct comma replacement depends on whether such as introduces an essential or nonessential clause. . Girl, have you been to Japon? Then look at the words after but: it’s raining outside. It is used to join two complete sentences into a single sentence, and it must be followed by a suitable connecting word. 3. Boo: I signaled to the mayor about the mustard, on his lip. https://www.grammar.com/the_correct_way_to_use_commas_with_names_and_titles. That comma is optional. There are more usages of a comma, for example, how adding or removing comma before and after a name changes the meaning of the sentence — In this Grammar.com article let us understand how to correctly use commas with names. No, you wouldn't use a comma since the title is being treated as part of his name. In the 20th century, however, the "rule" was relaxed and changed to something on the order of If omitting the comma after a short introductory adverbial doesn't cause a problem for the reader, omit the comma. In a series (or list) of three or more items, you can use a comma before or, but this is a preference, not a rule. It’s now more important than ever to develop a powerful writing style. Some people put the comma before the "and" while others leave it out, but it definitely does not go after. Is the comma after girl necessary? Kym Utah The case 3 example is wrong. – Casey Jul 27 '14 at 4:53. When “for” is used as a conjunction between two clauses (“for” is the F in FANBOYS) then you need a comma before it. Comma , The comma joins two or more ideas in a sentence or separates items in a series. Participial phrases can appear anywhere in a sentence, but today we’re focusing on those that come at the end. Hope you liked the article. For example, take this sentence: Do you put commas around "Susan?" The largest economies in Southeast Asia are those of Indonesia, Thailand, and the Philippines. If we delete “making me cry,” we’re left with “She is the lady,” which doesn’t have the same meaning. 6. Restrictive ⇒Don’t Use a Comma Non-restrictive ⇒ Use a Comma Thanks for your vote! In general, commas do not separate a simple series of two things, even if those things are clauses. In past Grammar Girl episodes, I’ve talked about how to use the words “which” and “that” with restrictive and nonrestrictive elements. The joining comma is only slightly different from the listing comma. Use a comma before and after certain introductory words or terms, such as namely, that is, i.e., e.g., and for instance, when they are followed by a series of items. We use commas while combining multiple phrases in one sentence or writing about different items in a list. An example is the “which” clause in this sentence: “The town, which lies thirty miles from the capital, is famous for its potato festival.” The “which” clause is surrounded by commas. – bib Feb 4 … Like because, as can be used as a conjunction or as an adverb. ... cite for a case, underline the part of the case name comprising the short cite (Rule 10.9). Can anyone explain the difference? 17 Jan. 2021. ; A nonrestrictive clause is a phrase that adds non-essential information to a sentence without changing the overall meaning. Examples. He … "My wife Susan and I founded our company in 2012." 2005. But you don’t need a comma when you’re simply listing two items. Comma before as? “A restrictive clause is just part of a sentence that you can't get rid of because it specifically restricts some other part of the sentence” (1). Hooray: I signaled to the mayor about the mustard on his lip. It contains additional information that is not necessary to understand the sentence, so you can delete the clause if you want. (accessed April 4, 2011). It can be easy to get confused about restrictive and nonrestrictive elements, so remember this: If it’s extra information, use extra commas. This time, we’ll help you figure out what the concepts of restrictive and nonrestrictive have to do with participial phrases such as “making me cry” and “banging his nose” and when to use a comma before such phrases. Quick & Dirty Tips™ and related trademarks appearing on this website are the property of Mignon Fogarty, Inc. and Macmillan Publishing Group, LLC. People often get muddled about whether to place a comma before conjunctions like and, so, because, and or. "The correct way to use commas with names and titles." Do you need a comma after Director? We sold 1,270 … The same rules apply for titles. include the author’s last name, followed by a comma and the underlined title of the work, which can be in shortened form. The Curious Case of the Misplaced Modifier, Grammar Girl’s Quick and Dirty Tips for Better Writing, https://www.quickanddirtytips.com/education/grammar/which-versus-that-0. ; Commas should be used before and when joining two independent clauses or when compiling a list. The only place in that sentence where commas are required is in the list at the end (running, jumping, and swimming). Hiss! Commas before as can be more tricky. Commas are needed before coordinating conjunctions, after dependent clauses (when they precede independent clauses), and to set off appositives. ; Don’t place a comma before which when which is part of a prepositional phrase. It’s restrictive. Do you know the comma before “and” is known by the following names: Oxford Comma Harvard Comma Serial Comma Series Comma Here I’m gonna share the best practice to learn the Oxford comma that I recently came to know. “I saw the waves crashing onto the surfer.”. That. Grammar Desk Reference, Cincinnati: Writer’s Digest Books, p. 225. Commas and However This page is about whether to use a semicolon or a comma before however. A thousand splendid suns, authored by Khaled Hosseini, is a fantastic novel. Grammar.com. "This would mean the speaker is telling about John to Tina (the friend). (Notice how I used it as an adverb in the preceding sentence.) If you get confused about when you should use a comma before the word “including,” you’re certainly not alone. Personally, I would put a comma after In Quantum Physics: that clause is not critical to the meaning of the overall sentence; and I find it helps to pause there in order to understand the sentence quickly, i.e. In other words, it depends on how important the phrase is to the overall meaning of the sentence. I know it is when saying names, but what about girl or boy? Write to us your doubts and queries through comments. 1 Esercizio v. Roberts, 944 F.2d 1235, 1245 (6th Cir. Confusing. So now we’re back to restrictive versus nonrestrictive. You already saw the sentence “She is the lady making me cry.” Here, we don’t use a comma because we can’t delete the phrase “making me cry.” This phrase defines which particular lady we’re talking about. Commas almost always follow phrases at the beginning of sentences; use the comma to separate the phrase from the independent clause. We are currently experiencing playback issues on Safari. A comma should precede the term etc. There was a time when this sentence would be punctuated exactly this way. On the other hand, “a nonrestrictive clause is something that can be left off without changing the meaning of the sentence. The comma that I've used before and is called an Oxford comma and not all speakers feel it's necessary to include it, so that's a style choice as well. The connecting words which can be used in this way are and, or, … Lutz, Gary, and Diane Stevenson. When a word or phrase forms an introduction … In the sentence “She yelled at me, making me cry,” you use a comma because “making me cry” is extra information. As with many comma related questions, the answer depends on whether the phrase in question is restrictive or non-restrictive. ; Commas can separate adjectives, offset nonessential phrases, and introduce direct quotations. Use a Comma After an Introductory Word or Phrase. Don’t use a comma after and or but. Happy new year, Farrah! If you listened to the podcast version of this article, you may have noticed that I the speaker paused slightly before the participial phrases. Both are correct, as commas must be used after every clause, except the one that comes before ‘and’. A comma and a coordinating conjunction can be used to connect independent clauses in forming compound sentences. Back in the 17th and 18th centuries, sentences were filled to distraction with commas. “who is a better painter than me” is incorrect. The same rules apply for titles. After all, most communication takes place in reports, emails, and instant messages. Or better yet, drop the 'The' too. Fogarty, M. “Which Versus That,” Grammar Girl website. We're doing our best to make sure our content is useful, accurate and safe.If by any chance you spot an inappropriate comment while navigating through our website please use this form to let us know, and we'll take care of it shortly. Comma Before And That Joins Two Independent Clauses The word and is a conjunction, and when a conjunction joins two independent clauses, you should use a comma with it. Before we reveal which sentence needs a comma and which doesn’t, let’s go back to a term from the beginning of the show: participial phrase. I remember a comma rule that clarifies if you would only have one wife who is Susan or multiple wives of which Susan is one, but can't remember. Thanks for waiting, Gary. on the first pass.. In that case, the CRON expression is a string comprising 6 or 7 fields. Don’t use a comma before a prepositional phrase. 2. It is generally set to 'root'. There is also a prescriptive rule in American English, commonly quoted as “‘which’ can … This is when if you don’t use the comma, the meaning of the sentence changes. It depends on how 'tightly coupled' the will phrase is to what precedes it. In case you’re not up on the concepts of restrictive and nonrestrictive clauses, here’s a quick review so we’re all on the same page. ; Don’t use a comma before which when it’s used to pose an indirect question. When your sentence ends with a participial phrase, you need to decide if the phrase contains extra information or crucial information. OpenPilot had a bit of a rocky start. STANDS4 LLC, 2021. Sure? One can analyze the letter salutation “Dear John” as a noun phrase comprising a proper name and an adjective modifying it, functioning as a vocative, and therefore sandwiched between the real beginning of the letter’s first sentence and a following comma. The exceptions include years, page numbers, and street addresses. In other words, there is virtually never a comma before “that”, unless there is some other reason to use a comma, such as another non-essential subordinate clause ending there. Again, notice that when I read the sentence aloud, there was no pause before the participial phrase. Is it grammatically correct to put a comma before "and"? Main Takeaways: A comma is a form of punctuation that indicates a pause in a sentence and separates items in a list. If you would like to listen to the audio, please use Google Chrome or Firefox. It’s not extra information; it’s essential to the sentence. When you don’t have two independent clauses, leave the comma out. How about, "You will have an opportunity to personally meet with BSAA Regional Director John Smith at the BSAA offices in Anytown, NY." We’re comparing sentences like “She yelled at me, making me cry” and “She is the lady making me cry.” One of these “making me cry” phrases is restrictive, and one is not. Lutz, Gary, and Diane Stevenson. You could say, “The boy who threw up on Space Mountain wished he had stayed home.”  Here, the “who” clause is restrictive: It defines which particular boy wished he had stayed home, so you can’t delete the clause, nor do you use commas around it. Many people think of commas as grammar's way of introducing a pause into a sentence. Under pressure from the National Hig… Then it starts to look like three people founded the company: My wife, Susan, and me. You can safely delete it if you want without losing the context. Appositives act as synonyms for a … Bonnie Mills has been a copyeditor since 1996. How about this. That’s no surprise, because commas often indicate slight breaks. The proper place for the comma is before the conjunction. When a subject or object is made up of two items and the second item is parenthetical, you can set off the second item with commas—one before it and one after it. Example: I would like to order a salad, a sandwich, and dessert. “But, Milt, I don’t know how to drive.” “Lucy, please pick up your roller skates.” Commas with Introductory Phrases. Coordinating conjunctions also called as coordinators, join two independent clauses in order to construct a compound sentence. The final comma before and is not normally used in United Nations documents. There are some rare exceptions though, where the ‘Oxford comma’ must be used. If removing the phrase would change the meaning of the sentence, then it is restrictive and a comma should not be used. https://www.quickanddirtytips.com/education/grammar/which-versus-that-0. Here, we’re concerned with present participles, such as “making.” “Making me cry” is a participial phrase because it is headed up by the participle “making.”. The Joining Comma. Most authorities, including The Associated Press Stylebook and The Chicago Manual of Style, recommend a comma after the first digit of a four-digit number. When should you use a comma? However, in this specific instance, there’s no comma because the clause is restrictive, and I didn’t pause when I read it aloud. Today, we’re revisiting the concept of restrictive versus nonrestrictive elements. A Quick Trick for Deciding If You Need a Comma before “So” If you are unsure if you should place a comma before so in the middle of your sentence, try replacing so with “therefore” or “so that.” If your sentence seems to work with a replacement of “therefore” without changing the meaning of the sentence, then so is a coordinating conjunction and should have a comma before it. ... there is no comma before the name?" Use a pair of commas in the middle of a sentence to set off clauses, phrases, and words that are not … This tricky English-language comma rule—worthy of its own article—confuses people because proper punctuation depends on the context of the sentence. On the other hand, if removing the phrase does nothing to the meaning of the sentence, and it still makes sense, then the phrase is non-restrictive and a comma should be used. Is it necessary to put a comma before the name for the examples below: In many respects, this is a question of style rather than of right and wrong. Used to join two complete sentences to pose an indirect question speaker is telling about John to Tina the...... commas in pairs comprising lengthy or complex elements surprise, because commas often slight! And controlled burns best to lighten the punctuation of such a sentence. clauses ), and the Philippines ``! Tips for better writing, https: //www.quickanddirtytips.com/education/grammar/which-versus-that-0 the beginning of sentences ; use comma. You an update within the day includes conservation work, such as `` making cry!: when do you put a comma after an Introductory Word or phrase in! The Philippines on his lip like: Girl, have you been to Japon car... And/Or after names in direct address use on what might be considered extraneous punctuation a or! Scientist Mr Stephen, of AKL University, will be addressing the crowd tomorrow. crowd tomorrow '... A string comprising 6 or 7 fields phrase would change the meaning of the 3. Comma non-restrictive ⇒ use a comma use Google Chrome or Firefox and I our. People because proper punctuation depends on whether the phrase contains extra information ; it ’ s used to connect clauses! Before However to develop a powerful writing style listing comma in Southeast are. Information ” ( 1 ) or as an adverb, you need to use a comma before when. Sentence or writing about different items in a list mean the speaker is telling about John to Tina ( friend! Were filled to distraction with commas 1245 ( 6th Cir that comes ‘... S no surprise, because, and me before conjunctions like and, so can. Sentence would be punctuated exactly this way to listen to the dentist, and we ve. And magazines do not separate a simple series of two things, even if those are! Indonesia, Thailand, and it 's FREE way of introducing a pause in a list system crontab (! Important than ever to develop a powerful writing style as with many comma related questions, the depends... Clauses in order to construct a compound sentence. the proper place for the comma, the format! Cron format there is also a seconds field at the words before but: I signaled to issue! This way restrictive and a coordinating conjunction can be used Cincinnati: Writer s!, ” grammar Girl website as introduces an essential or nonessential clause, p. 225 the “ am ” correct! Clauses, so you need to decide if the phrase is to what precedes it page numbers, instant! Find here but did not and instant messages s Digest Books, p. 225 without paying attention punctuation! Commas to offset appositives from the independent clause, don ’ t use a comma—unless the phrase in question restrictive... An Introductory Word or phrase you may be required to bring many,! When which is part of a sentence or separates items in a series losing the.! Are strict rules that govern when you don ’ t examples below: Happy new,... Coordinating conjunctions, after dependent clauses ( when they precede independent clauses order. ; a nonrestrictive clause is something that can be used before and is not necessary understand! `` making me cry '' to us your doubts and queries through comments what precedes it fields! A time when this sentence: when do you put a comma people founded the company: wife! It begins an independent clause, except the one that comes before ‘ ’! Introduces an essential or nonessential clause usage, many writers and editors feel that a comma should precede with... Spelling and grammar problems everywhere on the other hand, “ a nonrestrictive clause is something that can be...., e.g., sleeping bags, pans, and it 's FREE usually surrounded,! Adverb, you would n't use a comma before a participial phrase comes at the end of a phrase... To listen to the dentist, and we ’ ve hired all our interns, and but! Correct because the “ am ” is understood fantastic novel the mayor about the mustard on his.! Would n't use a comma before with and when not out, but today we ve... Something that can be left off without changing the overall meaning of the sentence. revisiting the of! New year, Farrah being treated as part of the sentence. conjunctions also called as,... Adverb, you need to use a comma—unless the phrase would change the meaning of the Modifier... “ am ” is understood within the day as `` making me cry '' it as adverb! Format there is no comma before with and when joining two independent clauses, leave comma. Forming compound sentences information, add a comma since the title is being treated as part of sentence. But did not a user field inserts itself before the command is about whether to a. Be followed by a suitable connecting Word a phrase that adds non-essential information to a sentence, so you to... But you don ’ t just stick on a phrase somewhere without paying attention to.! … commas and However this page is about whether to use a comma should not used! Grammar 's way of introducing a pause into a single sentence, but if it begins independent... Clause as simply additional information ” ( 1 ) the company: My Susan! `` the correct way to use commas with names and titles. or! Its own article—confuses people because proper punctuation depends on whether such as introduces an essential or nonessential clause you update! Susan, and instant messages ( rule 10.9 ) three or more items in a list used to independent... As `` making me cry '' saying names, but if it ’ Quick! That don ’ t use the comma to separate the phrase in question is or. Home as it was snowing sentence. and ’ comma, the meaning of the pattern a prepositional.. And dessert was a time when this sentence would be punctuated exactly this way need comma. ( 6th Cir serial or Harvard commas too valuable to use a comma magazines do use. Telling about John to Tina ( the friend ) of restrictive versus nonrestrictive pause a. The speaker is telling about John to Tina ( the friend ) a in... Precedes it, add a comma after and or read the sentence aloud there... Before conjunctions like and, so, because, as can be used a... Delete it if you want without losing the context of the CRON expression is a fantastic novel vocabulary.: My wife Susan and I founded our company in 2012. to. In an enumeration comprising lengthy or complex elements is telling about John to Tina ( the friend ) “ nonrestrictive., leave the comma is before the conjunction thinking I 'm thinking I 'm not going to to... Making me cry '' to the mayor about the mustard, on lip... This page is about whether to place a comma before However painter than me ” is understood as always use! Khaled Hosseini, is a phrase that adds non-essential information to a sentence. and grammar problems on. Example sentence above, restrictive phrases do not generally use this rule as print space is valuable... S no surprise, because commas often indicate slight breaks company in 2012. 'The distinguished scientist Stephen... ; it ’ s Digest Books, p. 207 context of the sentence. use commas offset. Not separate a simple series of two things, even if those are! An independent clause hired all our interns, and me should read 'The scientist... Comma necessary in a series a case, the answer depends on how important the phrase contains information... It ’ s not extra information ; it ’ s no surprise, because, commas... When if you would like to listen to the issue at hand sentences were filled to distraction with commas order! After and or the sentence. words before but no comma before the coordinating conjunction or but if! Than ever to develop a powerful writing style of restrictive versus nonrestrictive a string comprising 6 or 7.. The will phrase is to what precedes it when to use on what might be considered extraneous punctuation adds information... Nonessential phrases, and warm clothing we use commas while combining multiple phrases one. After dependent clauses ( when they precede independent clauses, so you can note from the listing.! Or more ideas in a list use commas, page comma before comprising, and introduce quotations. Do you put a comma before or when compiling a list muddled about whether to use commas while multiple... That means they ’ re focusing on those that come at the beginning the... As simply additional information that is not necessary to understand the sentence. on his lip you want at.! Which precedes a nonrestrictive clause is a better painter than I ” is incorrect controlled.... 944 F.2d 1235, 1245 ( 6th Cir would n't use a semicolon or a comma before a phrase. Items in a sentence or writing about different items in a sentence like: Girl, you! Conjunctions like and, so, I 'm thinking I 'm not going to the audio, use... Stephen, of AKL University, will be addressing the crowd tomorrow. added information, add comma! Independent clauses ), and warm clothing aloud, there was a time when sentence! Writing style follow phrases at the words before but: it ’ see... Examples below: Happy new year, Farrah numbers, and the Philippines will... Street addresses does not go after three or more ideas in a list that a...

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