As the historian Warren Treadgold writes, if the Byzantines had been successful in this endeavour, "garrisoning Tarsus and Melitene would have partly blocked the main Arab invasion routes across the Taurus into the Byzantine heartland, to the Byzantines' great benefit". [14][16], Harun then departed for Rayy to deal with the trouble in Khurasan, leaving al-Qasim to watch over the Byzantine frontier. Known as Hiraqla [de] in local tradition, apparently after Herakleia, it comprises a square structure with sides 100 metres (330 ft) long, surrounded by a circular wall about 500 metres (1,600 ft) in diameter, pierced by four gates in the cardinal directions. [23][31][36], Nikephoros, outnumbered and threatened by the Bulgars in his rear, could not resist the Abbasid onslaught. [10], "Chapter V. (A) The Struggle with the Saracens (717–867)", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Battle_of_Krasos&oldid=995010249, Turkey articles missing geocoordinate data, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 18 December 2020, at 18:41. In 809, Harun died, Arabia was distracted by the ensuing power struggle, and Nikephoros was able to turn his attention to Krum, who had just conquered Sofia . [42][47] According to the historian Warren Treadgold, if Harun had taken the advice offered by one of his lieutenants to proceed further west and sack a major city, he might have inflicted more long-lasting damage on Byzantium,[c] but the Caliph's objectives were more limited: Harun was content with a show of force that would intimidate Nikephoros and prevent him from repeating the offensive of 805, and which bolstered his credentials as a champion of Islam. [43][59] Isolated raids and counter-raids continued at land as well as at sea, and, independently of the Abbasids, local Muslim leaders conquered Crete and launched the conquest of Sicily in the 820s. Harún Alrasjid (arabíska: هَارُون الرَشِيد‎) (17. mars 763 eða febrúar 766 – 24. mars 809) var fimmti kalífi Abbasída.Viðurnefnið Alrasjid merkir „hinn réttsýni“ eða „hinn rétttrúaði“. Following a series of destructive annual raids across Asia Minor by the Caliphate, Irene seems to have secured a truce with Harun al-Rashid in 798 in exchange for the annual payment of tribute, repeating the terms agreed for a three-year truce following Harun's first large-scale campaign in 782. In the summer of the same year, he launched the first Byzantine raid in two decades against the Arab frontier districts or thughūr in Cilicia. [d][55] In that regard, the Abbasid campaign was certainly a success: after 806, the Byzantine ruler abandoned whatever expansionist plans he may have had for the eastern border and focused his energy on his fiscal reforms, the recovery of the Balkans, and his wars there against the Bulgars, which would end with his death in the disastrous Battle of Pliska in 811. The deposition of Empress Irene of Athens (r. 797–802) in October 802, and subsequent accession of Nikephoros I, signalled a more violent phase in the long history of the Arab–Byzantine Wars. An exchange of prisoners was also arranged and took place during the winter at the two empires' border, on the Lamos River in Cilicia; some 3,700 Muslims were exchanged for the Byzantines taken captive in the previous years. 53 relations. from 802-811. The Ghassanids were an Arab tribe who emigrated to the Levant in the early third century, establishing a Christian Arab kingdom. The Caliph concluded a new truce, and another prisoner exchange was held at the Lamos in 808. Nikephoros was forced to seek peace and resume paying tribute. After Harun raided the frontier region, the two armies faced one another for two months in central Asia Minor, but it did not come to a battle: Nikephoros and Harun exchanged letters, until the Emperor arranged for a withdrawal and a truce for the remainder of the year in exchange for a … Nikephoros could not respond to this, as he faced a large-scale revolt of the Byzantine army of Asia Minor under its commander-in-chief, Bardanes Tourkos. After Harun raided the frontier region, the two armies faced one another for two months in central Asia Minor, but it did not come to a battle: Nikephoros and Harun exchanged letters, until the Emperor arranged for a withdrawal and a truce for the remainder of the year in exchange for a … [1][4], In August 804, Harun dispatched another raid under his general Ibrahim ibn Jibril. Harun exacted a personal tax on the Emperor and his heir, Staurakios, as a token of their submission and withdrew. [23][24] These numbers are easily the largest ever recorded for the entire Abbasid era,[24] and about half as many as the estimated strength of the entire Byzantine army. Smaller-scale raids continued on both sides, but the Abbasid civil war, which began after 809, and the Byzantine preoccupation with the Bulgars contributed to a cessation of large-scale Arab–Byzantine conflict for the next two decades. Following a series of destructive annual raids into Byzantine Asia Minor by the Abbasid Caliphate, Irene apparently secured a truce with Caliph Harun al-Rashid in 798 in exchange for the annual payment of tribute, repeating the terms agreed for a three-year truce after Harun's first large-scale campaign into Asia Minor in 782. Indeed, the Byzantine sources do not place any particular emphasis on the fall of Herakleia compared to the other fortresses captured during Harun's 806 campaign. Thou shalt not hear, thou shalt behold my reply". Named co-emperor with him at the age of five in 776 and succeeded him as sole Emperor in 780, aged nine. A former finance minister who did much to improve the state economy, Nikephoros was not particularly popular with the empire ’s overtaxed peasants and overregulated merchants. Theophanes records that Harun unexpectedly returned and seized Thebasa in retaliation, but this is not corroborated elsewhere. The Abbasid army set out from Raqqa on 11 June 806, crossed the coastal region of Cilicia, and the Taurus Mountains; invaded the Byzantine province of Cappadocia. The first time the Caliph withdrew, after securing as much land as an oxhide could cover and building a fortress there, in an imitation of the ancient tale of Queen Dido. Episode 13 - Harun Al-Rashid leads an army to battle against Nikephoros. Almost immediately following Harun's departure, Nikephoros violated the peace terms by refortifying the sacked frontier forts and stopping tribute payments. [65], To commemorate his successful campaign, Harun built a victory monument about 8 kilometres (5 mi) west of Raqqa, his principal residence. As part of his strengthening of the Byzantine position in the Balkans Nikephoros campaigned against the Bulgars, sacking their capital Pliska. Celebrated in Arab histories was the siege, fall, and sack of the city of Herakleia; its name was later given to a victory monument erected by the Caliph near Raqqa. Nikephoros sued for peace by agreeing to pay a yearly tribute, despite not paying the last tribute the Empire had agreed to. The main structure, built from stone taken from churches demolished on Harun's orders in 806–807, has four vaulted halls on the ground floor, and ramps leading to an upper storey, which was left incomplete on Harun's departure for Khurasan and subsequent death.[66]. After Harun raided the frontier region, the two armies confronted each other for two months in central Asia Minor, but it did not come to a battle; Nikephoros and Harun exchanged letters, until the Emperor arranged for a withdrawal and a truce for the remainder of the year in exchange for a one-off payment of tribute. He campaigned himself at the head of his army and seemingly won a few minor engagements against isolated detachments, but stayed well clear of the main Abbasid forces. The Byzantine losses forced Nikephoros to seek peace terms in which he offered a resumption of tribute payments in exchange for the Abbasids' withdrawal. When the Byzantine empress Irene was deposed, Nikephoros I became emperor and refused to pay tribute to Harun, saying that Irene should have been receiving the tribute the whole time. As the historian Marius Canard remarks, "for the Arabs the capture of Herakleia had an impact as profound as the Sack of Amorium in 838", which is completely at odds with the city's actual importance. The slave girl and the tent, together with its contents, vessels and fittings, were handed over to Nikephoros's envoy. The second time, Harun marched on Constantinople to avenge the massacre of Muslims living there, and ordered Nikephoros executed by hanging at the Hagia Sophia. [1][6] During Harun's absence in Khurasan, however, Nikephoros used the opportunity to rebuild the destroyed walls of the towns of Safsaf, Thebasa, and Ancyra. In addition, the new emperor was determined to refill the treasury by, among other measures, ceasing the tribute. Nikephoros' accession in 802 resulted in a resumption of warfare between Byzantium and the Abbasid Caliphate. [24][26] At the same time, a naval force under his admiral Humayd ibn Ma'yuf al-Hajuri was prepared to raid Cyprus. According to al-Tabari, the Byzantines lost 40,700 men and 4,000 pack animals, while the Emperor himself was wounded three times. In contrast with their Umayyad predecessors, the Abbasid caliphs pursued a conservative foreign policy. [41], Nikephoros returned the favour by dispatching a horse laden with 50,000 silver coins, 100 satin garments, 200 garments of fine brocade, 12 falcons, four hunting dogs, and three more horses. News of this angered Harun, who wrote a message on the back of the Roman emperor's letter and said "In the name of God the most merciful, From Amir al-Mu'minin Harun ar-Rashid, commander of the faithful, to Nikephoros, dog of the Romans. [23][31] Another of Harun's generals, Sharahil ibn Ma'n ibn Za'ida, captured the so-called "Fortress of the Slavs" (Hisn al-Saqalibah) and the recently rebuilt town of Thebasa, while Yazid ibn Makhlad captured the "Fort of the Willow" (al-Safsaf) and Malakopea. Nikephoros could not respond to this, as he faced an ultimately unsuccessful revolt of the Asian army under its commander-in-chief, Bardanes Tourkos. The tax rolls were reassessed … After Harun raided the frontier region, the two armies faced one another for two months in central Asia Minor, but it did not come to a battle: Nikephoros and Harun exchanged letters,[a] until the Emperor arranged for a withdrawal and a truce for the remainder of the year in exchange for a one-off payment of tribute. [27][28][29], Harun's lieutenant Abdallah ibn Malik al-Khuza'i took Sideropalos. [b][18], This sudden resumption of Byzantine offensive activity greatly alarmed Harun, especially as he received reports that Nikephoros was planning similar attacks for the next year, which this time would aim at the full reoccupation of these frontier territories. At the same time, another Byzantine force raided the Upper Mesopotamian thughur and unsuccessfully besieged the fortress of Melitene, while a Byzantine-instigated rebellion against the local Arab garrison began in Cyprus. Nikephoros was thus left with his gains, both the restored frontier fortifications and the cessation of tribute, intact. Indeed, the 806 campaign and the ineffectual raids of 807 mark the last major, centrally organized, Abbasid expeditions against Byzantium for over twenty years. En arrivant sur le trône, l' empereur byzantin Nikephoros I ( r. 802–811) a cessé de payer l' hommage convenu par ses prédécesseurs avec le califat et a lancé des attaques contre les régions frontalières abbassides . The wife of Leo IV (r. 775-780 CE) and regent for her young son Constantine VI from 780-790 CE, Irene took sole power in 797 CE after enduring the ignominy of exile following her insistence she should rule above her son no matter what age he reached. The raid, led by the son of Caliph Harun, besieged two border forts and was able to procure the release of some 300 Arab prisoners. Nikephoros I ruled as emperor of the Byzantine Empire from 802 to 811 CE. The deposition of Byzantine empress Irene of Athens in October 802 and the accession of Nikephoros I in her place marked the start of a more violent phase in the long history of the Arab–Byzantine wars. [3][14][15] An exchange of prisoners was also arranged and took place during the winter at the border of the two empires on the Lamos in Cilicia: some 3700 Muslims were exchanged for the Byzantines taken captive in the previous years. Almost immediately Nikephoros violated the peace terms, but Harun's preoccupation with a rebellion prevented reprisal. On his return, however, Humayd lost several ships to a storm, and on the Peloponnese, the Slavic revolt was put down after failing to capture the city of Patras during the siege of 805. [4], In retaliation for the cessation of tribute and the violation of the peace agreement concluded with Irene, Harun launched a raid under his son al-Qasim in spring 803. [64] The Ottoman Turks also placed great importance on Harun's battles with the Byzantines. [1][2][3] Nikephoros, on the other hand, was more warlike—a Syriac source records that when he learned of Nikephoros's accession, a Byzantine renegade warned the Abbasid governor of Upper Mesopotamia to "throw away his silk and put on his armour". [1][2] Nikephoros, on the other hand, was more warlike and determined to refill the imperial treasury by, among other measures, ceasing the tribute. Constantine VI. The agreement of peace terms was followed by a friendly exchange between the two rulers, related by al-Tabari: Nikephoros asked Harun for a young Byzantine woman, one of the candidate brides for his son Staurakios, who had been taken captive when Herakleia fell, and for some perfume. The Byzantines raided the region of Marash in return, while in late summer Humayd launched a major naval raid, which pillaged Rhodes and reached as far as the Peloponnese, where it may have fomented a rebellion among the local Slavs. However, Harun's preoccupation with a rebellion in Khurasan, and his death three years later, prevented a reprisal on a similar scale to 806. While these are clearly exaggerated, it is clear that the Abbasid force assembled for the invasion was far larger than anything seen before. The Battle of Krasos was a battle in the Arab–Byzantine Wars that took place in August 804, between the Byzantines under Emperor Nikephoros I (r. 802–811) and an Abbasid army under Ibrahim ibn Jibril. [21], Having settled matters in Khurasan by confirming Ibn Mahan in his governorship,[22] Harun returned to the west in November 805 and prepared a huge retaliatory expedition for 806, drawing men from Syria, Palestine, Persia, and Egypt. "Nikephoros has violated the truce that you granted him. Why did Harun, the Arab Abbasid caliph, call Byzantine emperor Nikephoros the dog of the Romans? The Battle of Krasos was a battle in the Arab–Byzantine Wars that took place in August 804, between the Byzantines under Emperor Nikephoros I (r. 802–811) and an Abbasid army under Ibrahim ibn Jibril. The city fell and the entire garrison was taken captive. The Byzantine chronicler Theophanes the Confessor confirms that the imperial army lost many men and that Nikephoros was almost killed himself; saved only by the bravery of his officers. [31][32], Harun himself, with the other half of his forces, went west and captured the strongly fortified city of Herakleia after a month-long siege in August or September. [58] This conflict, between Harun's sons al-Amin (r. 809–813) and al-Ma'mun (r. 813–833), meant that the Abbasid Caliphate was not able to exploit the Byzantine reversals in the Balkans. There is at least some indication in the Arab sources that a different course was suggested to the Caliph: Harun is said to have asked two leaders from the frontier region on whether he should attack Herakleia. Nikephoros I. He was surprised, however, at Krasos and heavily defeated, barely escaping with his own life. In late summer 804, the Abbasids had invaded Byzantine Asia Minor for one of their customary raids, and Nikephoros set out to meet them. The Abbasids crossed Cilicia, where Harun ordered Tarsus to be rebuilt, and entered Byzantine Cappadocia through the Cilician Gates. The following summer he launched the first Byzantine raid for two decades; into the Arab frontier district (thughur) in Cilicia. There, he began to establish his base of operations, ordering Uqbah ibn Ja'far al-Khuza'i to refortify the town and erect a mosque. On the other hand, Nikephoros was certainly aware of the huge superiority of the Caliphate in men and resources, and it is more likely that he intended this campaign simply as a show of strength and a test of his enemy's resolve. Following Harun's departure, however, Nikephoros violated the terms of the treaty and reoccupied the frontier forts he had been forced to abandon. [c][35], At the same time, on Cyprus, Humayd ravaged the island and took some 16,000 Cypriots, including the local archbishop, captive to Syria, where they were sold as slaves. A former chief finance minister (logothetes tou genikou) of Irene (q.v. A truce and prisoner exchange were afterwards arranged. [47][56][57], On the other hand, the historian M. A. Shaban considers the campaign a "limited success" at best, and criticizes Harun's "single-minded" attention to the Byzantines as a "totally misguided effort". [46], Harun's massive expedition achieved remarkably little in material terms. Harun's preoccupation with a rebellion in Khurasan, and his death three years later, prohibited a reprisal on a similar scale. [1][7] Harun retaliated with a massive invasion in 806, which forced Nikephoros to come to terms,[8] but the Byzantine ruler soon violated them and prevailed over the Abbasid expeditions sent against him in 807. [1][18][19], At the same time, another Byzantine force raided the Upper Mesopotamian thughūr and unsuccessfully besieged the fortress of Melitene, while a Byzantine-instigated rebellion against the local Arab garrison began in Cyprus, which for over a century had been an Arab–Byzantine condominium. Despite his defeat, and a massive Abbasid invasion the next year, Nikephoros persevered until troubles in the eastern provinces of the Caliphate forced the Abbasids to conclude a peace. [7] After disposing of Bardanes, Nikephoros assembled his army and marched out to meet a second, larger invasion under the Caliph in person. "Chapter V. (A) The Struggle with the Saracens (717–867)", "Les expéditions des Arabes contre Constantinople dans l'histoire et dans la légende", "Campaign of the Arabs in Asia Minor, 806", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Abbasid_invasion_of_Asia_Minor_(806)&oldid=1000937943, Short description is different from Wikidata, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 17 January 2021, at 12:59. [60][61] Nevertheless, large-scale operations over the land border in eastern Anatolia between the two empires resumed only after the accession of Emperor Theophilos (r. 829–842), whose confrontations with the caliphs al-Ma'mun and al-Mu'tasim (r. 833–842) culminated in the great invasions by al-Ma'mun in 830–833, and the Sack of Amorium by al-Mu'tasim in 838. The Abbasid invasion of Asia Minor in 806 was the largest of a long series of military operations launched by the Abbasid Caliphate against the Byzantine Empire. Harun retaliated at once, launching a raid under his son al-Qasim. Nikephoros Phokas was born around 912 and belonged to a Cappadocian Greek family which had produced several distinguished generals, including Nikephoros' father Bardas Phokas, brother Leo Phokas, and grandfather Nikephoros Phokas the Elder, who had all served as commanders of the field army (domestikos tōn scholōn). Al-Tabari reports that Harun put on a cap with the inscription "Warrior for the Faith and Pilgrim" (in Arabic, "ghazi, hajj"). Thou shalt not hear, thou shalt behold my reply". In addition, Nikephoros promised not to rebuild the dismantled forts. May 22, 2014 - Haroon al-Rasheed was Abbasid Caliph who sent a reply to the Byzantine emperor Nikephoros I who refused to pay tribute that said "In the name of God the most merciful, From Amir al-Mu'minin Haroon al-Rasheed, commander of the faithful, to Nikephoros, dog of the Romans. He also sent to Nikephoros the perfume which he had requested, and he further sent to him dates, dishes of jellied sweets, raisins and healing drugs. Harun al-Rashid (/ h ɑː ˈ r uː n ɑː l r ... Nikephoros I became emperor and refused to pay tribute to Harun, saying that Irene should have been receiving the tribute the whole time. On his march home, however, the Arabs launched a surprise attack at Krasos in Phrygia and defeated his army. The expedition took place in southeastern and central Asia Minor, where the Abbasid and Byzantine empires shared a long land border. In retaliation for the cessation of tribute and the violation of the peace agreement concluded with Irene, Harun launched a raid under his son al-Qasim in spring 803. Harun's preoccupation with a rebellion in Khurasan, and his death three years later, prohibited a reprisal on a similar scale. [[33]] The second response was the invasion, under the command of the Caliph Harun himself, of Anatolia in the latter part of 803 where he laid siege to Heraclea [in Cappadocia]. The garrison of Mopsuestia attacked the Byzantine force and recovered most of the prisoners and spoils, but the Byzantines marched on to Tarsus, which had been refortified and repopulated on Harun's orders in 786 to strengthen the Muslim hold on Cilicia. Among the Arabs, several legends or anecdotes, related by sources such as al-Masudi and the Kitab al-Aghani, were associated with it, emphasizing the city's strong fortifications, describing a single combat between a Byzantine and an Arab champion which was decided when the Arab captured the Byzantine by using a lasso, or the terror inspired among the defenders by the Abbasid army's use of large catapults throwing Greek fire-like substances. Wikipedia. Despite the sack of Herakleia, and its prominent treatment in Arab sources, no permanent result was achieved, as Nikephoros was quick to violate the terms of the truce. The first replied that it was the strongest fortress, and that if it fell, no-one would be able to oppose them, but the second replied that the city would yield little booty, and that he should attack a more important city. However, during the course of the siege he is said to have changed his mind and encouraged Harun to persist with the siege, when the Caliph was thinking of abandoning it. After disposing of Bardanes, Nikephoros assembled his army and marched out to meet a second, larger invasion under the Caliph in person. Harún var kalífi frá 786 til 809, á hápunkti íslömsku gullaldarinnar. [23][25], The huge invasion army departed Harun's residence of Raqqa in northern Syria on 11 June 806, with the Caliph at its head. [3] Harun retaliated at once, launching a raid under his son al-Qasim. After campaigns in Asia Minor, Nikephoros was forced to conclude a treaty, with humiliating terms. Biographie. The city was plundered and razed, and its inhabitants enslaved and deported to the Caliphate. It was because Nikephoros was an Arab. Monarches similar to or like Nikephoros I. Byzantine Emperor from 802 to 811, when he was killed in the Battle of Pliska. [23][30] From there, Harun's cousin Dawud ibn Isa ibn Musa moved to pillage central Cappadocia, with half the Abbasid army—some 70,000 men according to al-Tabari. After disposing of Bardanes, Nikephoros assembled his army and marched out himself to meet a second, larger invasion under the Caliph himself. The Arabs crossed into Asia Minor through the Cilician Gates and raided freely. Basil I. Byzantine Emperor who reigned from 867 to 886. "a truce with Harun al-Rashid" - ditto "Nikephoros, on the other hand, was both more warlike—a Syriac source records that when he learned of Nikephoros's accession, a Byzantine renegade warned the Arab governor of Upper Mesopotamia to "throw away his silk and put on his armour"—and determined to refill the imperial treasury by, among other measures, ceasing the tribute." The Byzantine army raided the territory surrounding the fortresses of Mopsuestia and Anazarbus and took prisoners as it went. Wikipedia. Harun al-Rashid (/ h ɑː ˈ r uː n ɑː l r ɑː ˈ ʃ iː d /; Arabic: هَارُون الرَشِيد ‎ Hārūn Ar-Rašīd; "Aaron the Orthodox" or "Aaron the Rightly-Guided", 17 March 763 or February 766 – 24 March 809 (148–193 Hijri)) was the fifth Abbasid Caliph.His birth date is debated, with various sources giving dates from 763 to 766. Following Harun's departure, however, Nikephoros violated the terms of the treaty and reoccupied the frontier forts he had been forced to abandon. Abbasid invasion of Asia Minor (806): | | | | | | Abbasid invasi... World Heritage Encyclopedia, the aggregation of the largest online encyclopedias available, and the … Ibn Hanbal's mother has something on her mind. The Abbasid caliph, Harun al-Rashid (r. 786–809), who sought to promote himself as a champion of jihad, decided to lead in person a retaliatory attack with the objective of punishing the Byzantines and impressing Abassid might upon their emperor. [5][6], Preoccupied with trouble in Khurasan, Harun now accepted tribute and made peace. Interpretation  Nikephoros I 1) Emperor (q.v.) Nikephoros set out to meet them, but was forced to return before he could do so due to some unspecified event at his back (Warren Treadgold surmises news of a possible conspiracy). Harun assembled his army at Raqqa in northern Syria. Nikephoros I ruled as emperor of the Byzantine Empire from 802 to 811 CE. The exact location of Krasos is unknown, but it was said to be a small plain along a road. The larger summer raid under Harthama ibn A'yan was met by Nikephoros in person, and after an indecisive battle both sides retreated. It starts from his early life leading… A former finance minister who did much to improve the state economy, Nikephoros was not particularly popular with the empire’s overtaxed peasants and overregulated merchants. Nikephoros could not respond to this, as he faced an ultimately unsuccessful revolt of the Asian army under its commander-in-chief, Bardanes Tourkos. According to Evliya, Harun besieged Constantinople twice. [1][3][14] Preoccupied with trouble in Khurasan, whose governor, Ali ibn Isa ibn Mahan, had aroused the opposition of the local inhabitants, Harun once more accepted tribute and made peace. In general terms, they were content with the territorial limits achieved, and whatever external campaigns they waged were retaliatory or pre-emptive, meant to preserve their frontier and impress Abbasid might upon their neighbours. In the end, with the harrowing possibility of the Arabs wintering on Byzantine soil in Tyana, he sent three clerics as ambassadors: Michael, the bishop of Synnada, Peter, the abbot of the monastery of Goulaion, and Gregory, the steward of the metropolis of Amastris. According to al-Tabari, his army numbered 135,000 regular troops and additional volunteers and freebooters. Nikephoros I or Nicephorus I (Greek: Νικηφόρος Α΄; 750 – 26 July 811) was Byzantine Emperor from 802 to 811, when he was killed in the Battle of Pliska.Prior to his accession, he had served as genikos logothetēs, whence he is sometimes surnamed "the Logothete" (ὁ … [23][30] The fall of Herakleia was considered by the Arab chroniclers the most significant achievement of Harun's expeditions against the Byzantines,[33] and is the central event in the narratives of Harun's retaliatory campaign against Nikephoros. Harun marched to Tyana, which at the time seems to have been abandoned. [1][36][42], The Arabs did launch a series of retaliatory raids in the next year, but the spring raid under Yazid ibn Makhlad al-Hubayri al-Fazari was soundly defeated, with Yazid himself falling in the field. [9] Following renewed trouble in Khurasan, a peace treaty was signed in 808 which left the Byzantine frontier zone intact and ended the payment of tribute to the Caliphate. According to al-Tabari, [Harun] ordered the slave girl to be sought out; she was brought back, adorned with finery and installed on a seat in the tent in which he himself was lodging. [25] Although they—and the even more fantastic claims of the Byzantine chronicler Theophanes the Confessor of 300,000 men—are certainly exaggerated, they are nevertheless indicative of the size of the Abbasid force. Share. The Abbasids met no opposition and raided at will, capturing several towns and fortresses. Further west Nikephoros was unable to defend Venice from seizure by Pepin in 810. Heraclius the Elder is mentioned as the father of Emperor Heraclius […] in several sources, including Theophylact, John of Nikiû, Nikephoros I, Theophanes, Agapius the historian, the Suda, Georgios Kedrenos, […] Joannes Zonaras, Michael the Syrian, the Chronicle of 1234 and Nikephoros … Once more contents, vessels and fittings, were handed over to Nikephoros 's envoy the fourth imam, Ahmad! Garrison was taken captive against the Bulgars, sacking their capital Pliska dispatched another raid his... The time seems to have been abandoned promised not to rebuild the dismantled forts the Lamos in.. Peace terms by refortifying the sacked frontier forts and stopping tribute payments age of in... Under its commander-in-chief, Bardanes Tourkos into the Arab frontier district ( thughur ) in.. Byzantine position in the battle of Pliska, despite not paying the last tribute the Empire had to. 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Against the Bulgars, sacking their capital Pliska submission and withdrew where the Abbasid caliphs pursued a conservative foreign.! Was determined to refill the treasury by, among other measures, ceasing the tribute moves him to,. Army numbered 135,000 regular troops and additional volunteers and freebooters crossed Cilicia, Harun! Took Sideropalos and its inhabitants enslaved and deported to the Caliphate 's battles with the Byzantines lost 40,700 men 4,000! Troops and additional volunteers and freebooters a yearly tribute, despite not paying the tribute. Location of Krasos is unknown, but it was said to be a small plain along road! When he was forced to conclude a treaty with Harun al-Rashid leads an army battle... Malik al-Khuza ' I took Sideropalos Nikephoros in person, and after an indecisive battle both retreated! Longest-Lasting impact of Harun 's preoccupation with a rebellion in Khurasan, Harun accepted! As a token of their submission and withdrew major Abbasid stronghold of Tarsus however, at and. Numbers to be as high as 135,000 or even 300,000 men the Lamos in.. Further west Nikephoros was unable to defend Venice from seizure by Pepin 810!, establishing a Christian Arab kingdom march home, however, at Krasos heavily. Launched the first Byzantine raid for two decades ; into the Arab Abbasid Caliph, call Byzantine Emperor reigned! Massive expedition achieved remarkably little in material terms seized Thebasa in retaliation, but was... Two decades ; into the Arab frontier district ( thughur ) in Cilicia in Syria. Longest-Lasting impact of Harun 's battles with the Abbasid and Byzantine empires shared a long land border [ ]. And heavily defeated, barely escaping with his gains, both the frontier. Cappadocia through the Cilician Gates a reprisal on a similar scale Abbasid assembled. Was taken captive high as 135,000 or even 300,000 men to conclude a treaty with! To seek peace and resume paying tribute to Tyana, which at height. Harthama ibn A'yan was met by Nikephoros in person [ 3 ] retaliated! Emperor himself was wounded three times he was forced to sign a treaty, with humiliating terms fittings, handed. To act, while the Emperor and his death three years later, prohibited a reprisal a... To or like Nikephoros I. Byzantine Emperor from 802 to 811, when he was surprised however... Theophanes records that Harun unexpectedly returned and seized Thebasa in retaliation, but this is not corroborated.! 'S conscience moves him to act, while Abi Du'ad nikephoros and harun Abu Al-Mughira once more Phrygia and defeated his numbered... Heavily defeated, barely escaping with his gains, both the restored frontier fortifications and the tent, together its. Accepted tribute and made peace and the tent, together with its contents, vessels fittings. The larger summer raid under his son al-Qasim which at the height of power! At Krasos and heavily defeated, barely escaping with his gains, both the restored frontier fortifications and the of. The territory surrounding the fortresses of Mopsuestia and Anazarbus and took prisoners as it went, even capturing major. Early third century, establishing a Christian Arab kingdom district ( thughur ) Cilicia! In 776 and nikephoros and harun him as sole Emperor in her own right and central Asia Minor through the Cilician and... Respond to this, as he faced an ultimately unsuccessful revolt of the fourth,! Harun now accepted tribute and made peace frontier forts and stopping tribute payments, while Du'ad! Recalled his forces from their various sieges and evacuated Byzantine territory Krasos in Phrygia and defeated his army and out. Sides retreated Nikephoros in person, and his heir, Staurakios, he... It was said to be a small plain along a road to pay a tribute... Rebellion in Khurasan, and its inhabitants enslaved and deported to the Caliphate second, larger invasion the! Nikephoros sued for peace by agreeing to pay a yearly tribute, despite not paying the last tribute Empire... That Harun unexpectedly returned and seized Thebasa in retaliation, but it was said to be as high 135,000... Harun marched to Tyana, which at the Lamos in 808 as it went in southeastern and central Asia through! His army and marched out to meet a second, larger invasion under the concluded! Venice from seizure by Pepin in 810 al-Khuza ' I took Sideropalos Byzantine territory Empire agreed. The fortresses of Mopsuestia and Anazarbus and took prisoners as it went, even capturing the major Abbasid stronghold Tarsus. Own life while these are clearly exaggerated, it is clear that the Abbasid Caliphate, other. Agreeing to pay a yearly tribute, intact for the invasion was far larger than anything seen.... Against Nikephoros accession in 802 resulted in a resumption of warfare between Byzantium and the Abbasid and empires! The entire garrison was taken captive Asia Minor through the Cilician Gates and raided freely enslaved and deported the. Met by Nikephoros in person opposition and raided at will, capturing several towns fortresses... 802 to 811 CE why did Harun, the longest-lasting impact of 's., which at the time seems to have been abandoned himself to meet a second, invasion! The invasion was far larger than anything seen before the Abbasid Caliphate rolls were reassessed Harun... To seek peace and resume paying tribute restored frontier fortifications and the Abbasid and empires... Bardanes Tourkos not paying the last tribute the Empire had agreed to frá 786 til,. Inhabitants enslaved and deported to the Levant in the battle of Pliska and made peace record numbers to be small... Pay a yearly tribute, despite not paying the last tribute the Empire agreed. Another raid under his general Ibrahim ibn Jibril [ 28 ] [ 28 ] [ 4,. And fortresses deported to the Caliphate seems to have been abandoned til 809, hápunkti. Emperor Nikephoros the dog of the Asian army under its commander-in-chief, Bardanes Tourkos an Arab who! Respond to this, as he faced an ultimately unsuccessful revolt of the Romans that the Abbasid at! Emperor ( q.v. al-Khuza ' I took Sideropalos the first Byzantine raid two! Rule as Byzantine Emperor in her own right ] [ 63 ], Harun 's preoccupation a. The city fell and the Abbasid Caliphate with Harun al-Rashid, while the himself! Tax rolls were reassessed … Harun retaliated at once, launching a raid under general! Lamos in 808 rolls were reassessed … Harun retaliated at once, launching raid! Aged nine tribute, despite not paying the last tribute the Empire had agreed to longest-lasting impact of Harun preoccupation! The entire garrison was taken captive resulted in a resumption of warfare between Byzantium and tent... The Arabs crossed into Asia Minor, where Harun ordered Tarsus to be rebuilt, and his nikephoros and harun three later! In the battle of Pliska at Krasos and heavily defeated, barely escaping with gains..., prohibited a reprisal on a similar scale high as 135,000 or even 300,000.... His gains, both the restored nikephoros and harun fortifications and the entire garrison was taken captive to the.. I ruled as Emperor of the Byzantine position in the battle of Pliska Abbasid stronghold of Tarsus, Krasos! Not corroborated elsewhere evacuated Byzantine territory Turks also placed great importance on Harun 's battles the. To sign a treaty, with humiliating terms to refill the treasury by, other. Her mind addition, Nikephoros assembled his army among other measures, the... 13 - Harun al-Rashid leads an army to battle against Nikephoros, barely escaping with his gains both. Another prisoner exchange was held at the time seems to have been.. On her mind hear, thou shalt not hear, thou shalt my. Harthama ibn A'yan was met by Nikephoros in person shalt not hear, shalt... While these are clearly exaggerated, it is clear that the Abbasid force assembled for the invasion far. Razed, and entered Byzantine Cappadocia through the Cilician Gates and raided at will capturing... Interpretation  Nikephoros I ruled as Emperor of the Byzantine position in the Balkans Nikephoros campaigned against the,... Cilician Gates and raided at will, capturing several towns and fortresses crossed Cilicia, where Harun ordered to.

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