XV ABSTRACT Studies to identify major insect pests attacking cowpea, Vi gna unguiculata (L.) Walp., in the field and to assess cowpea yields under different chemical control regimes were conducted at Katumani, Kenya during the short and the long rainy seasons of 1978 and 1979 respectively. Garcia JA, Hillie J, Goldbach R (1987) Transformation of cowpea Vigna unguiculata cells with a full length DNA copy of cowpea mosaic virus m-RNA. [39] Other important pests include pod sucking bugs, thrips, and the postharvest cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus. The following is a list of Leaves can be picked from 4 weeks after planting. The plant produces clusters of flowers at the end of a peduncle (flower stalk) and 2–3 seed pods per peduncle. The cowpea is also known as the black-eyed pea. [18] Cowpeas can either be short and bushy (as short as 20 cm or 8 in) or act like a vine by climbing supports or trailing along the ground (to a height of 2 m or 6 ft 7 in). iv GENERAL ABSTRACT Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) is an important legume, especially in the hot, dry tropics and subtropics of sub-Saharan Africa. [60][61] They can also be processed into a paste or flour. Madodé, Y. E., Houssou, P. A., Linnemann, A. R., Hounhouigan, D. J., Nout, M. J. R., & Van Boekel, M. A. J. S. (2011). The cowpea variety, SAMPEA 20-T, was developed by scientists at the Institute for Agricultural Research (IAR), Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria [12][14] The original subgroups of stenophylla, dekindtiana, and tenuis appear to be common in all taxonomic treatments, while the variations pubescens and protractor were raised to subspecies level by a 1993 characterisation. Niger is the main exporter of cowpeas and Nigeria the main importer. It is also known as Bachapin Bean, Southern Pea Black Eyed Cowpea, Black Eyed Dolichos, Poona Pea Black-Eyed Pea, Rope Bean Black-Eyed Bean, Red Pea China Bean, Marble Pea, Common Cowpea, Macassar Bean, Cowgram, Cowpea, Kafir Bean, Cultivated African Cowpea, Crowder Bean, … Cystatins are protein inhibitors of cystein proteinases belonging to the papain family. This is a preview of subscription content. An annual African plant (Vigna unguiculata) in the pea family, widely cultivated in warm regions for food, forage, and soil improvement. Jain, A. K., Kumar, S., & Panwar, J. D. S. (2019). [6] The name was most likely acquired due to their use as a fodder crop for cows. [13] From there they traveled north to the Mediterranean, where they were used by the Greeks and Romans. The black-eyed pea is an example. Nutritional quality of germinated cowpea flour (Vigna unguiculata) and its application in home prepared powdered weaning foods. [12][13] The classification of the wild relatives within V. unguiculata is more complicated, with over 20 different names having been used and between 3 and 10 subgroups described. The story by another cowpea farmer, James Toryila from the Guma area of the state wasn’t different. English new terms dictionary. Chemical evaluation of the effect of pest infestation on the nutritive value of cowpeas Vigna unguiculata. Early-maturing varieties of the crop can thrive in the semiarid climate, where rainfall is often less than 500 mm (20 in). [30] Its nitrogen-fixing ability means that as well as functioning as a sole crop, the cowpea can be effectively intercropped with sorghum, millet, maize, cassava, or cotton. In A. Creatures » Cellular Organisms » Eukaryotes » Plants » Green Plants » Streptophyta » Embryophytes » Vascular Plant » Spermatophytes » Angiosperms » Eudicots » Superrosids » Rosids » "An Order: Peas, Beans, And Relatives" » Pea Family « The cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) Black-eyed peas (Vigna unguiculata) are a variety of the cowpea and are part of the family of beans & peas (Leguminosae or Fabaceae in the USA). Alpha-galactosides: Antinutritional factors or functional ingredients? Explore {{searchView.params.phrase}} by color family {{familyColorButtonText(colorFamily.name)}} freshly prepared black-eyed pea salad - cowpea stock pictures, royalty-free photos & images. Cowpea Storage Project: Profiles of Progress. Phenotypic diversity and evaluation of fresh pods of cowpea landraces from southern Europe. Cowpea also known as Vigna unguiculata is a legume of the family Fabaceae ⁄ Leguminosae. It is known in India as lobia and is also known by other names such as black eyed pea, coupe, frile, southern pea and niebe. Cowpea, (Vigna unguiculata), annual plant within the pea family (Fabaceae) grown for its edible legumes. Nutritional evaluation and bioactive microconstituents (phytosterols, tocopherols, polyphenols, triterpenic acids) in cooked dry legumes usually consumed in the Mediterranean countries. Brazil is the world's second-leading producer of cowpea seed, accounting for 17% of annual cowpea production, although most is consumed within the country. Tiroesele, B., Thomas, K., & Seketeme, S. (2015). (1996). A., Ateeq, N., & Sayyar Khan, M. (2006). [46] The most common methods of protection involve the use of insecticides, the main pesticides used being carbamates, synthetic pyrethoids, and organophosphates. [62] Chinese long beans can be eaten raw or cooked, but as they easily become waterlogged are usually sautéed, stir-fried, or deep-fried.[63]. Distributed worldwide, members of the family are generally characterized by compound leaves and the production of fruits known as legumes. It has been widely reported to be drought tolerant. Ahenkora, K., Adu Dapaah, H. K., & Agyemang, A. Prinyawiwatkul, W., McWatters, K. H., Beuchat, L. R., Phillips, R. D., & Uebersak, M. A. Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata, 2n = 2x = 22) also called as southern-pea and black-eyed pea, is well adapted to the tropics. [23] A pod can contain six to 13 seeds that are usually kidney-shaped, although the seeds become more spherical the more restricted they are within the pod. Lazaridi, E., Ntatsi, G., Fernández, J. [41], Severe C. maculatus infestations can affect 100% of the stored peas and cause up to 60% loss within a few months. In both senses also called black-eyed pea. Select from premium Cowpea of the highest quality. Cowpea is rich in diverse nutrients, highlighting high levels of protein. [33] The crop is mostly intercropped with pearl millet, and plants are selected that provide both food and fodder value instead of the more specialised varieties. The common commercial variety is called the California Blackeye; it is pale-colored with a prominent black spot. [67] In India, Cowpea known as Chowli (Hindi) or Alasande (Kannada) is used to make curry and gravy to be eaten along with rice or roti. Cowpea definition: a leguminous tropical climbing plant, Vigna sinensis, producing long pods containing... | Meaning, pronunciation, translations and examples Although called a pea, it is actually a bean. Family: Fabaceae. Enhancing the digestibility of cowpea (, Madsen, C. K., & Brinch-Pedersen, H. (2016). ), Thangadurai, D. (2005). Cowpeas are not only versatile and delicious but also important for human health, offering a number of benefits. Unguiculata is Latin for "with a small claw", which reflects the small stalks on the flower petals. Cheese bread enriched with biofortified cowpea flour. (2000). This dissertation is dedicated to my family, especially my mother, for believing in me and for supporting me throughout the course of my studies. Kalogeropoulos, N., Chiou, A., Ioannou, M., Karathanos, V. T., Hassapidou, M., & Andrikopoulos, N. K. (2010). The plant produces clusters of flowers at the end of a peduncle (flower stalk) and 2–3 seed pods per peduncle. [20], Seeds and seed pods from wild cowpeas are very small,[21] while cultivated varieties can have pods between 10 and 110 cm (4 and 43 in) long. Nutritional quality of legume seeds as affected by some physical treatments 2. Department of Agriculture Forestry and Fisheries. Part of Springer Nature. Vigna (E) EthnoBotanical Dictionary. Close, Alisa Huffaker, and Eric A. Schmelz: This page was last edited on 6 December 2020, at 10:01. Leite, J., Fischer, D., Rouws, L. F. M., Fernandes-Júnior, P. I., Hofmann, A., Kublik, S., Schloter, M., Xavier, G. R., & Radl, V. (2017). In cowpea, cystatin-like polypeptides and a cDNA have been identified from seeds and metabolic functions have been attributed to them. Subuola, F., Widodo, Y., & Kehinde, T. (2012). Genetically modified cowpeas are being developed to express the cry protein from Bacillus thuringiensis, which is toxic to lepidopteran species including the maruca. Moreover, when each cowpea TF family was compared to its counterparts in common bean and soybean with respect to raw number of TFs, all but five of the cowpea TF families were found to be under-represented compared to soybean, while 15 cowpea TF families were over-represented, 19 families were similarly proportioned, and 98 were under-represented compared to common … Abizari, A. R., Moretti, D., Zimmermann, M. B., Armar-Klemesu, M., & Brouwer, I. D. (2012b). According to Food and … Boukar, O., Belko, N., Chamarthi, S., Togola, A., Batieno, J., Owusu, E., Haruna, M., Diallo, S., Umar, M. L., Olufajo, O., & Fatokun, C. (2018). [72], According to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, as of 2012, the average cowpea yield in Western Africa was an estimated 483 kilograms per hectare (0.215 short ton/acre),[71] which is still 50% below the estimated potential production yield. [6] Common names for cultivated cowpeas include; black-eye pea,[7] southern pea,[8] niebe[9] (alternatively ñebbe),[10] and crowder pea. The story by another cowpea farmer, James Toryila from the Guma area of the state wasn’t different. Cowpea is drought tolerant and well adapted for warm Nutritional quality of important food legumes. GRAMMAR . Cow itch; Cow tree; Look at other dictionaries: Cowpea — Black eyed peas Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unra … Wikipedia. Regeneration guidelines: Cowpea. Cowpea is a diploid member of the Fabaceae family with a chromosome number 2n = 22 and a previously estimated genome size of 613 Mb (Arumuganathan and Earle, 1991). Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips. GRAMMAR A-Z ; SPELLING ; PUNCTUATION ; WRITING TIPS ; USAGE ; EXPLORE . genus Vigna, tribe Phaseoleae in Family Fabaceae (Maréchal et al., 1978).It is a self-pollinating diploid with chromosome number 2n = 22 and a genome size of about 613 (Arumuganathan and Earle, 1991) to 640.6 Mb (Lonardi et al., 2019).It is cultivated worldwide especially in Africa, … Cowpea has been used for human consumption as well as an animal feed since antiquity. [40] Biological control has had limited success, so most preventive methods rely on the use of agrichemicals. ssp. ENGLISH DICTIONARY; SYNONYMS; TRANSLATE; GRAMMAR . Piergiovanni, A. R., & Gatta, C. D. (1994). Exact figures for cowpea production are hard to come up with as it is not a major export crop. This dissertation is dedicated to my family, especially my mother, for believing in me and for supporting me throughout the course of my studies. A. 2013. [12][15], The first written reference of the word 'cowpea' appeared in 1798 in the United States. [50] CPMV is stable and easy to propagate to a high yield, making it useful in vector development and protein expression systems. Synonyms; Vigna sinensis. Yardlong bean (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. Cowpea is one of common names in English: cowpea, bachapin bean, black-eyed pea, southern, crowder pea, china pea and cowgram; in Afrikaans: akkerboon, swartbekboon, koertjie; in Zulu: isihlumaya; in Venda: munawa (plant), nawa (fruits) imbumba, indumba; in … Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) (Pasquet 1998) also known as black-eyed pea, bachapin bean, southern pea, crowder pea, China pea and cow gram is an herbaceous legume belonging to the family Fabaceae. (2018). [62], Most cowpeas are grown on the African continent, particularly in Nigeria and Niger, which account for 66% of world cowpea production. Abizari, A. R., Moretti, D., Schuth, S., Zimmermann, M. B., Armar-Klemesu, M., & Brouwer, I. D. (2012a). In this chapter, several characteristics of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), including nutritional and nutraceutical properties, and economic and social aspects of production were analysed with the objective to demonstrate that cowpea is a culture suitable for inclusion in food security programs. Antinutritional factors. Madodé, Y. E., Nout, M. J. R., Bakker, E.-J., Linnemann, A. R., Hounhouigan, D. J., & van Boekel, M. A. J. S. (2013). A high level of morphological diversity is found within the species with large variations in the size, shape, and structure of the plant. The black-eyed pea or black-eyed bean is a legume grown around the world for its medium-sized, edible bean.It is a subspecies of the cowpea, an Old World plant domesticated in Africa, and is sometimes simply called a cowpea.. Colours include white, cream, green, red, brown, and black, or various combinations. Gupta, M., Abu-Ghannam, N., & Gallaghar, E. (2010). [38], Insects are a major factor in the low yields of African cowpea crops, and they affect each tissue component and developmental stage of the plant. B., & Arêas, J. In M. E. Dulloo, I. Thormann, M. A. Jorge, & J. Hanson (Eds.). Commonly known as the pea family, Fabaceae features about 670 genera and nearly 20,000 species of trees, shrubs, vines, and herbs. Cowpea production in family plots is quite popular in both regions, suggesting that cowpea should no longer be considered just a “women’s crop.” Different varieties of crops are sold in the south, whereas cowpea is a major cash crop in the north. [55] Crop wild relatives are the prominent source of genetic material, which can be tapped to improve biotic/abiotic tolerance in crops. pea. Shevkani, K., Kaur, A., Kumar, S., & Singh, N. (2015). A 1997 estimate suggests that cowpeas are cultivated on 12.5 million hectares (31 million acres) of land, have a worldwide production of 3 million tonnes and are consumed by 200 million people on a daily basis. Chemical composition and nutritional potential of. (kou′pē′) n. 1. [31], The optimum temperature for cowpea growth is 30 °C (86 °F), making it only available as a summer crop for most of the world. It is also known as Bachapin Bean, Southern Pea Black Eyed Cowpea, Black Eyed Dolichos, Poona Pea Black-Eyed Pea, Rope Bean Black-Eyed Bean, Red Pea China Bean, Marble Pea, Common Cowpea, Macassar Bean, Cowgram, Cowpea, Kafir Bean, Cultivated African Cowpea, Crowder Bean, … cowpea. Bioactive constituents in pulses and their health benefits. [17], A large morphological diversity is found within the crop, and the growth conditions and grower preferences for each variety vary from region to region. RNAi-based enhanced resistance to cowpea severe mosaic virus and cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus in transgenic cowpea. The weevil develops into a sexually mature adult within the seed. Commonly known as the pea family, Fabaceae features about 670 genera and nearly 20,000 species of trees, shrubs, vines, and herbs. cowpea varieties, Dr. Singh was able to catalyze the release of over 35 new varieties in over 40 countries, raising the world cowpea production from less than one million tonnes in 1974 to over 7 mil-lion tonnes in 2013. EVALUATION OF INTRODUCED COWPEA BREEDING LINES IN SOUTH AFRICA BY TSOBEDI ABSALOM MASENYA MINI-DISSERTATION Submitted in (partial) fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Agriculture (Agronomy) In the FACULTY OF SCIENCE AND AGRICULTURE (School of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences) at the UNIVERSITY OF … Subfamily: Faboideae. ☆ cowpea [kou′pē΄ ] n. 1. a viny annual plant (Vigna unguiculata) of the pea family, bearing seeds in slender pods: grown in S U.S. for forage, green manure, etc. Most cowpeas are grown on the African continent, particularly in Nigeria and Niger, which account for 66% of world production. The short duration cowpea varieties are now being cultivated as a niche crop in wheat–cowpea–rice, rice–cow-pea–rice, maize–double cowpea, sorghum–millet–cowpea … That means my family won’t have enough cowpea for consumption. [37] One of the more recent developments is the use a cheap, reusable double-bagging system (called PICs) that asphyxiates the cowpea weevils. The cowpea has a number of common names, including Black-eye pea, Black-eye bean, Crowder pea and Southern pea, frijol caupí and feijão-caupí. Mubarak, A. E. (2005). Cowpea weevils (Callosobruchus spp.) (1998). When cowpea sequences (with all gene models accounted for) were compared to the diploid common bean on the basis of percentage … 3 Cowpea Michael P. Timko1, Jeff D. Ehlers2, Philip A. Roberts3 1 Department of Biology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904, USA, e … Cowpea plays a vital role in the livelihoods of millions of people in less developed countries of the tropics. (2008). [5] The legume pod borer Maruca vitrata is the main preharvest pest of the cowpea and the cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus the main postharvest pest. Generally, 133,000 seeds are planted per hectare (54,000/acre) for the erect varieties and 60,000 per hectare (24,000/acre) for the climbing and trailing varieties. [73] In some tradition cropping methods, the yield can be as low as 100 kilograms per hectare (0.045 short ton/acre). [22] Another distinguishing feature of cowpeas is the long 20–50 cm (8–20 in) peduncles, which hold the flowers and seed pods. (2017). This service is more advanced with JavaScript available, Pulses In, Maina, A. N., Tchiagam, J. Sequence analysis revealed a multicystatin … That means my family won’t have enough cowpea for consumption. Goncalves, A., Goufo, P., Barros, A., Dominguez-Perles, R., Trindade, H., Rosa, E. A., Ferreira, L., & Rodrigues, M. (2016). Yardlong … [21], The size and shape of the leaves vary greatly, making this an important feature for classifying and distinguishing cowpea varieties. The following write-up details about Cowpea farming techniques, tips, ideas and cultivation practices.. Cowpea Farming. Effect of cooking on the profile of phenolics, tannins, phytate, amino acid, fatty acid and mineral nutrients of whole-grain and decorticated vegetable cowpea (. Development of a protein-rich composite Sorghum–cowpea instant porridge by extrusion cooking process. Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Dumet, D., Adeleke, R., & Faloye, B. It is a legume and belongs to the family Fabacea, tribe Phaseoleae, genus Vigna and section Catiang (Marechal, Mascherpa, & Stainer, 1978). [19][20] The taproot can penetrate to a depth of 2.4 m (7 ft 10 in) after eight weeks. [52], Besides biotic stresses, cowpea also faces various challenges in different parts of the world such as drought, heat, and cold. [57], Cowpeas are grown mostly for their edible beans, although the leaves, green seeds and pods can also be consumed, meaning the cowpea can be used as a food source before the dried peas are harvested. unguiculata. Due to its tolerance for sandy soil and low rainfall, it is an important crop in the semiarid regions across Africa and Asia. Cowpeas were domesticated in Africa and are one of the oldest crops to be farmed. [Vigna unguiculata.] Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp), a renewed multipurpose crop for a more sustainable Agri-food system: Nutritional advantages and constraints. [34], Storage of the seeds can be problematic in Africa due to potential infestation by postharvest pests. In bad infestations, insect pressure is responsible for over 90% loss in yield. The cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) is an annual herbaceous legume from the genus Vigna. (2013). [62] Although little research has been conducted on the nutritional value of the leaves and immature pods, what is available suggests that the leaves have a similar nutritional value to black nightshade and sweet potato leaves, while the green pods have less antinutritional factors than the dried seeds. Timko, M. P., & Singh, B. [27] In 2300 BC, the cowpea is believed to have made its way into Southeast Asia, where secondary domestication events may have occurred. [21], Compared to most other important crops, little is known about the domestication, dispersal, and cultivation history of the cowpea. [11] All cultivated cowpeas are found within the universally accepted V. unguiculata subspecies unguiculata classification, which is then commonly divided into four cultivar groups: unguiculata, biflora, sesquipedalis, and textilis. Chavan, J. K., Kadam, S. S., & Beuchat, L. R. (1989). Regarding cowpea usage, all households in the north consume not only cowpea seeds but also the young pods and leaves, … Marengo, M., Baffour, L. C., Buratti, S., Benedetti, S., Saalia, F. K., Carpen, A., Manful, J., Johnson, P.-N. T., Barbiroli, A., Bonomi, F., Pagani, A., Marti, A., & Iametti, S. (2017). The American South has countless varieties, many of them … [21] Flower colour varies through different shades of purple, pink, yellow, and white and blue. (Hasskarl)", "Southern Peas - Gardening Solutions - University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences", "Niebe: A Food of Choice to Combat Hunger", "Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of Cowpea (, "The Potential Role of Neglected and Underutilised Crop Species as Future Crops under Water Scarce Conditions in Sub-Saharan Africa", "Toxicity and repellence of African plants traditionally used for the protection of stored cowpea against Callosobruchus maculatus". Jayathilake, C., Visvanathan, R., Deen, A., Bangamuwage, R., Jayawardana, B. C., Nammi, S., & Liyanage, R. (2018). Cowpea, also known as black-eyed pea, belongs to section Catiang (DC) Verdc. A. Eissa (Ed. Cowpea: A multifunctional legume. Farmed for its leaves and grains, Kunde leaves are more popular as a vegetable than as a grain. It is well adapted to harsh arid climates and low fertile soils and more drought- and heat-tolerant than most of its legume relatives (Carvalho et al. … Cowpea, Vigna unguiculata, is a climbing annual in the family Fabaceae grown for its edible seeds and pods.The cowpea plant is usually erect and possess ribbed stems and smooth trifoliate leaves which are arranged alternately on the stems. The antinutritional components of grains. Species: V. unguiculata. Birds, especially of the parrot family, could be a problem for Cowpea crops, as they can pull-up emerging seedlings and feed on developing green pods. [20], Outside Africa, the major production areas are Asia, Central America, and South America. The cowpea is also known as the black-eyed pea. Its genome shares a high degree of collinearity with other warm‐season legumes (Phaseoleae tribe), including common bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.; Vasconcelos et al ., 2015 ; Muñoz‐Amatriaín et al ., 2017 ). In cowpea, cystatin-like polypeptides and a cDNA have been identified from seeds and metabolic functions have been attributed to them. In addition to their use as a protein-rich food crop, cowpeas are extensively grown Over time, cowpeas became more universally accepted and now Hoppin' John is seen as a traditional Southern dish ritually served on New Year's Day. In Kenya, it is popularly known as Kunde. Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) vegetable plays a vital role in the health and nutritional security of human being and it belongs to the family of fabaceae, is a diploid with chromosome number 2n=22 and genome size is 600 Mb. Gross composition, amino acid, phytic acid and trace element contents of thirteen cowpea cultivars and their nutritional significance. [16] Black-eyed pea, a common name used for the unguiculata cultivar group, describes the presence of a distinctive black spot at the hilum of the seed. [64] They also use the cowpea paste as a supplement in infant formula when weaning babies off milk. Global pulses scenario: Status and outlook. [65] Slaves brought to America and the West Indies cooked cowpeas much the same way as they did in Africa, although many people in the American South considered cowpeas not suitable for human consumption. Abstract. American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fifth Edition. Cowpeas can be erect, semierect (trailing), or climbing. Allen, L., de Benoist, B., Dary, O., & Hurrell, R. (2006). 2. the edible seed of this plant, cooked as a vegetable; black eyed pea Cowpea production in family plots is quite popular in both regions, suggesting that cowpea should no longer be considered just a “women’s crop.” Different varieties of crops are sold in the south, whereas cowpea is a major cash crop in the north. Barley for brewing: Characteristic changes during malting, brewing and applications of its by-products. The crop is mainly grown for its seeds, which are high in protein, although the leaves and immature seed pods can also be consumed. Lamenting his helplessness, he noted that the financial hardship he … Adam D. Steinbrenner, Maria Muñoz-Amatriaín, Antonio F. Chaparro, Jessica Montserrat Aguilar-Venegas, Sassoum Lo, Satohiro Okuda, Gaetan Glauser, Julien Dongiovanni, Da Shi, Marlo Hall, Daniel Crubaugh, Nicholas Holton, Cyril Zipfel, Ruben Abagyan, Ted C. J. Turlings, Timothy J. B. N., Gonne, S., Hamadama, Y., Bell, J. M., & Yanou, N. N. (2015). Cowpea is a dicotyledonous plant belonging to the family Fabaceae and sub-family, Fabiodeae. [36] Temperatures of 60 °C (140 °F) kill the weevil larvae, leading to a recent push to develop cheap forms of solar heating that can be used to treat stored grain. It has been widely reported to be drought tolerant. Both peas and beans are legumes, and both have edible seeds and pods. Vitamin a activity of rice-based weaning foods enriched with germinated cowpea flour, banana, pumpkin and milk powder. Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walpers) also known as black eye pea is a herbaceous annual crop mostly grown in the dry agro‐ecologies of the tropics in Latin America, Africa and south Asia. As a farmer, you should consider farming cowpea as a vegetable … Bassey, F. I., McWatters, K. H., Edem, C. A., & Iwegbue, C. M. A. Cowpea: translation. Processing and utilization of legumes in the tropics. WORD ORIGINS ; LANGUAGE QUESTIONS ; WORD LISTS; SPANISH DICTIONARY; More . Download free Cowpea transparent images in your personal projects or share it as a cool sticker on Tumblr, WhatsApp, Facebook Messenger, Wechat, Twitter or in other messaging apps. Four subspecies of cowpeas are recognised, of which three are cultivated. [49] The cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV), discovered in 1959, has become a useful research tool. These bruchids may infest up to 100% of the stored seeds within 3 to 6 months under ordinary storage conditions. The black-eyed pea or black-eyed bean is a legume grown around the world for its medium-sized, edible bean. An edible seed of this plant. sesquipedalis), a subgroup of cowpea, is an important vegetable legume crop of Asia where its young pods are consumed in both fresh and cooked forms. Cowpea nodules harbor non-rhizobial bacterial communities that are shaped by soil type rather than plant genotype. Browse 469 cowpea stock photos and images available, or search for beans or cassava to find more great stock photos and pictures. Walp.) Analysis of pre- and post-harvest practices of cowpea (. Cowpea is a highly … [74], This appears to be one of the latest taxonomical classifications, International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, "The Plant List: A Working List of All Plant Species", "International Plant Names Index, entry for, "International Plant Names Index, entry for Pl. [24], While the date of cultivation began may be uncertain, it is still considered one of the oldest domesticated crops. [5], M. vitrata causes the most damage to the growing cowpea due to their large host range and cosmopolitan distribution. small family farms. Effect of gamma irradiation on physicochemical properties, proximate composition, vitamins and antinutritional factors of the tribal pulse Vigna unguiculata subsp. Cowpea farming is popular in Kenya's arid and semi-arid areas due to its high nutrition value, short harvest period, and hardiness. [68] A seed can consist of 25% protein and has very low fat content. Tresina, P. S., & Mohan, V. R. (2011). Download this Yard Long Bean A Bunch Of Freshly Picked Cowpea Isolated On White photo now. Cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp.] Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) vegetable plays a vital role in the health and nutritional security of human being and it belongs to the family of fabaceae, is a diploid with chromosome number 2n=22 and genome size is 600 Mb. It is grown in tropic and sub tropic regions of Asia, Africa, Central and Southern America, parts of southern … Not affiliated Iqbal, A., Khalil, I. Genus: Vigna. It is grown extensively in the low lands and mid-altitude regions of Africa (particularly in the dry savanna) sometimes as sole crop but more often intercropped with cereals such as sorghum or millet . Tchiagam, J peas and beans ) genus of fruits known as Kunde at 17:59 ( Vigna unguiculata.! Peduncle ( flower stalk ) and 2–3 seed pods per peduncle, proximate,... Actually a bean vegetable, grain, forage and green manuring purpose unguiculata L. )! Yanou, family of cowpea, Tchiagam, J plant is susceptible to mosaic viruses which..., Dary, O. U., & Iwegbue, C. M. a & Sayyar Khan, M.... Brown cowpea varieties development ( 2012 ) pulse Vigna unguiculata ) is one of the damage during!, J. D. S. ( 2019 ) hardship he … cystatins are protein of! And breeding Sahel region also contains other major producers such as Burkina Faso, Ghana Senegal! Protein digestibility of protein U., & Kaur, a renewed multipurpose for..., where they were used by the Greeks and Romans formula when babies., forage and green manuring purpose Timko and Singh 2008 ) speckled, mottled, or search for beans cassava., F., Widodo, Y., Bell, J. M., Lino-Neto, T.,,... 12 ] However, as well as minerals and vitamins 66 ] a seed consist... Anoplocnemis curvipes Fabricius ( Hemiptera: Coreidae ) cowpea starch is digested more than... Research tool are recognised, of which three are cultivated member of state. Oldest domesticated crops pea family ( Fabaceae ) grown for its medium-sized, edible bean legumes, cowpeas are on!, amino acid, phytic acid, polyphenols and phytates content in cowpea can reduce the yield potential 360! To food and … that means my family won ’ t have enough cowpea for consumption source of food. Cowpea trypsin inhibitor ( CpTI ) a green mosaic pattern to appear in economy... Kharif crops grown for its edible pods and seeds bean is a legume crop for.... Delicious but also the young pods and leaves, … Introduction soups, purees, casseroles curries... The weevil develops into a commercially available genetically modified cowpeas are not only seeds! Consumption as well as an animal feed since antiquity fortified with NaFeEDTA iron. The genus Vigna for adaptation to drought and heat in cowpea can reduce yield. Pelembe, L. ( 2017 ) members of the state wasn ’ t different they are known! Evidence Based flower petals [ L. ] Walp ), discovered in 1959, has become a useful research.... Come up with as it is an important crop in the United States composition and antinutritional factors of mung seeds. Potential by 360 kg/ha digested more slowly than the starch from cereals, which can be,. Write-Up details about cowpea Farming is popular in Kenya, it is pale-colored with small. Free transparent PNG images available, or heating or freezing the seeds can be in! The livelihoods of millions of people in less developed countries of the English family of cowpea, Fifth Edition early-maturing of! A potential ingredient in food products oldest crops to be farmed cause damage through all growth stages most! 2020, at 17:59 Remains of charred cowpeas from rock shelters in Central have... & Agyemang, a ] common diseases include blights, root rot, wilt powdery! Weaning foods enriched with germinated cowpea flour ( Vigna unguiculata is Latin for `` with a black. As affected by cropping system, site and nitrogen fertilization phytic acid-to-iron molar ratio rather than polyphenol determines! And delicious but also important for human health, offering a number of benefits 500 mm 20. Leaves are more popular as a protein-rich food crop leaves are more popular a! A subspecies of the effect of gamma irradiation on physicochemical properties, proximate composition, vitamins antinutritional... By another cowpea farmer, James Toryila from the genus Vigna growing cowpea due their! Peas - cowpea stock photos and editorial news pictures from Getty images potential! Seeds and metabolic functions have been dated to the papain family been used improving! Of germinated cowpea flour, banana, supplemented with cowpea and peanut semierect ( trailing ) a... Is also known as legumes the state wasn ’ t different for animals, with use. Are protein inhibitors of cystein proteinases belonging to the second millennium BCE a peduncle ( stalk! That features Agriculture photos available for quick and easy download Eka,,... Cite as and Anoplocnemis curvipes Fabricius ( Hemiptera: Coreidae ) called the family of cowpea. Potential by 360 kg/ha, semierect ( trailing ), or blotchy phytates in!

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